January 22nd, 2013 : Tax Changes for 2013: Checklist Part 1
Welcome 2013! As the new year rolls around, it's always a sure bet that there will be changes to the current tax law and 2013 is no different. From health savings accounts to retirement contributions here's a checklist of tax changes to help you plan the year ahead.
For 2013, the big news is the signing of the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (ATRA), which modified, made permanent or extended a number of tax provisions that expired in 2012 and 2011, for both individuals and businesses. Standard mileage, health savings account contribution limits, and foreign earned income exclusion, as well as most retirement contribution limits have been adjusted upward to reflect inflation as well.
Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)
Exemption amounts for the AMT are now permanent and indexed for inflation and allow the use of nonrefundable personal credits against the AMT. For 2013 the exemption amounts are $51,900 for individuals ($50,600 in 2012) and $80,800 for married couples filing jointly ($78,750 in 2012).
For taxable years beginning in 2013, the amount that can be used to reduce the net unearned income reported on the child's return that is subject to the "kiddie tax," is $1,000 (up from $950 in 2012). The same $1,000 amount is used to determine whether a parent may elect to include a child's gross income in the parent's gross income and to calculate the "kiddie tax". For example, one of the requirements for the parental election is that a child's gross income for 2013 must be more than $1,000 but less than $10,000.
For 2013, the net unearned income for a child under the age of 19 (or a full-time student under the age of 24) that is not subject to "kiddie tax" is $2,000.
Health Savings Accounts (HSAs)
Contributions to a Health Savings Account (HSA) are used to pay current or future medical expenses of the account owner, his or her spouse, and any qualified dependent. Medical expenses must not be reimbursable by insurance or other sources and do not qualify for the medical expense deduction on a federal income tax return.
A qualified individual must be covered by a High Deductible Health Plan (HDHP) and not be covered by other health insurance with the exception of insurance for accidents, disability, dental care, vision care, or long-term care.
For calendar year 2013, a qualifying HDHP must have a deductible of at least $1,250 (up $50 from 2012) for self-only coverage or $2,500 (up $100 from 2012) for family coverage (unchanged from 2011) and must limit annual out-of-pocket expenses of the beneficiary to $6,250 for self-only coverage (up $200 from 2012) and $12,500 for family coverage (up $400 from 2012).
Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs)
There are two types of Medical Savings Accounts (MSAs): the Archer MSA created to help self-employed individuals and employees of certain small employers, and the Medicare Advantage MSA, which is also an Archer MSA, and is designated by Medicare to be used solely to pay the qualified medical expenses of the account holder. To be eligible for a Medicare Advantage MSA, you must be enrolled in Medicare. Both MSAs require that you are enrolled in a high deductible health plan (HDHP).
Self-only coverage.For taxable years beginning in 2013, the term "high deductible health plan" means, for self-only coverage, a health plan that has an annual deductible that is not less than $2,150 (up $50 from 2012) and not more than $3,200 (up $50 from 2012), and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits do not exceed $4,300 (up $100 from 2012).
Family coverage. For taxable years beginning in 2013, the term "high deductible health plan" means, for family coverage, a health plan that has an annual deductible that is not less than $4,300 (up $100 from 2012) and not more than $6,450 (up $150 from 2012), and under which the annual out-of-pocket expenses required to be paid (other than for premiums) for covered benefits do not exceed $7,850 (up $200 from 2012).
Increased AGI Limit for Deductible Medical Expenses
Starting in 2013, the deduction threshold increases from 7.5% to 10% of adjusted gross income (AGI). However, if either you or your spouse will be age 65 or older as of December 31, 2013, the new 10% of AGI threshold will not take effect until 2017. In other words, the 7.5% threshold continues to apply for tax years 2013 to 2016 for these individuals. In addition, if you or your spouse turns age 65 in 2014, 2015, or 2016, the 7.5% of AGI threshold applies for that year through 2016 as well. Starting in 2017, the 10% of AGI threshold applies to everyone.
Eligible Long-Term Care Premiums
Premiums for long-term care are treated the same as health care premiums and are deductible on your taxes subject to certain limitations. For individuals age 40 or less at the end of 2013, the limitation is $360. Persons over 40 but less than 50 can deduct $680. Those over age 50 but not more than 60 can deduct $1,360, while individuals over age 60 but younger than 70 can deduct $3,640. The maximum deduction $4,550 and applies to anyone over the age of 70.
Starting in 2013, there will be an additional 0.9 percent Medicare tax on wages above $200,000 for individuals ($250,000 married filing jointly). Also starting in 2013, there is a new Medicare tax of 3.8 percent on investment (unearned) income for single taxpayers with modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) over $200,000 ($250,00 joint filers). Investment income includes dividends, interest, rents, royalties, gains from the disposition of property, and certain passive activity income. Estates, trusts and self-employed individuals are all liable for the new tax.
Foreign Earned Income Exclusion
For taxable years beginning in 2012, the foreign earned income exclusion amount is $97,600, up from $95,100 in 2012.
Long-Term Capital Gains and Dividends
In 2013 tax rates on capital gains and dividends for taxpayers whose income is at or below $400,000 ($450,000 married filing jointly) remain the same as 2012 rates. As such, for taxpayers in the lower tax brackets (10% and 15%), the rate remains 0%. For taxpayers in the middle tax brackets, the rate is 15%. An individual taxpayer whose income is at or above $400,000 ($450,000 married filing jointly), the rate for both capital gains and dividends is capped at 20% (up from 15% in 2012).
Pease and PEP (Personal Exemption Phaseout)
Pease (limitations on itemized deductions) is permanently extended for taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012 for taxpayers with income at or below $250,000 for single filers) and $300,000 for married filing jointly. The PEP (personal exemption phase-out) limitations was also reinstated, but with higher thresholds of $250,000 for single filers and $300,000 for married taxpayers filing joint tax returns.
Estate and Gift Taxes
For an estate of any decedent during calendar year 2013, the basic exclusion amount is $5,250,000 indexed for inflation (up from $5,120,000 2012). The maximum tax rate rises to 40% (up from 35% in 2012). The annual exclusion for gifts increases to $14,000 (up from $13,000 in 2012).